Shock is the condition of severe depression of vital functions or organs of the body resulting from loss of body fluid.

Types of Shock:
PRIMARY (NERVE) SHOCK: This type of shock is the one which follows immediately after an accident had occurred.
SECONDARY (ESTABLISH) SHOCK: This is the type of shock that manifest minutes or hour(s) after an accident has occurred.

Cause of Shock
Shock may be a sign of any form of injuries, cases or emergencies. The following are some of the common causes of shock.
  • Heart failure/heart attack
  • All forms of injuries
  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Dehydration
  • Head injuries
  • Anxiety
  • Respiratory emergencies/fainting
  • Burns
  • Severe bleeding
  • Good or bad news
  • Poison
  • Suddenness

Signs and Symptoms
  • Pale face
  • Rapid pulse
  • Sweating
  • Subnormal body temperature
  • Cold and clammy skin
  • Weakness and giddiness
  • Nausea which may lead to vomiting
  • Weak pulse
  • Thirstiness
  • Blurring of vision/dizziness
  • Pupil may be widely dilate
  • Air hunger
  • Restlessness
  • Casualty may fall into unconsciousness.

  1. Place the casualty in comfortable position, usually lying down, loosen all tightening materials and reassure the casualty.
  2. Treat the cause of shock
  3. Raise the lower extremity to improve blood supply to the brain and other vital organs of the body and turn the victim’s head to one side if neck injury is not suspected.
  4. Protect the casualty from cold and keep him warm by covering him with blanket
  5. Check casualty’s response, breathing and pulse rate at intervals and be prepared to resuscitate, if necessary.
  6. Dispose the casualty, if necessary for further care.

The “WARRI” Treatment Procedure
    W    -    Warm        Keep the casualty warm
    A    -    Airway    Open the casualty’s airway
    R    -    Rest        Rest the casualty.
    R    -    Reassure    Reassure the casualty
    I    -    If necessary, transport the casualty to the hospital.
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